盘点托福听力八大解题原则

2018-2-23 浏览次数:441

合肥托福培训哪家好?

写在最前面 :

大家好,我是祖铭老师。许久没有更文了,想趁着年初抓紧时间写一些干货和大家分享,一来是攒点RP,二来也希望大家来年早点和托福分手成功。今天,我要和大家谈一谈托福讲座的八大解题原则。当然,我们常说理论指导实践,在熟悉了这些原则之后,希望大家还是投入到大量的练习中进行自我生成。好了,enough talk! 接下来上干货。

 

合肥高中生语言培训

 

一、强调原则

在讲座中,常会听到教授用语音进行强调的现象,这种情况,我们认为是教授在强调一些重要观点,需要及时记录。出现这一现象的信号词常有以下这些:

Interesting, amazing, surprising, unbelievable...表示强烈的态度;

Key, important, necessary, fundamental, crucial... 表示重要程度;

Just remember, don’t forget, again, keep in mind... 表示强调;

 

例:

TPO3-L1

Another interesting thing we’ve learned is that some humming birds, um, they no longer use a certain route. They travel by a different route to reach their destination.

 

What does the professor imply the researchers have learned while studying humming bird migration?

A. Humming birds have totally disappeared from some countries due to recent habitat destruction.

B. Programs to replant flowers native to humming bird habitats are not succeeding.

C. Some groups of humming birds have changed their migration patterns.

D. Some plants pollinated by humming birds have become extinct.

✔答案:C

 

TPO29-L1

As the article explains, forest dynamics affects pedodiversity. But pedodiversity also affects forest dynamics. It’s worth bearing in mind.

 

Why does the professor give the students an article to read?

A. To help them understand the relationship between forest dynamics and pedodiversity.

B. To help them understand hoe to approach the assignment.

C. To provide them with more information on pits and mounds.

D. To provide them with more exposure to a controversial aspect of pedodiversity.

✔答案:A

 

二、术语原则

在讲座中,教授时常会提到一些相关专业的术语,这些术语有时会成为出题的重点。有些同学在听到一串自己不熟悉的术语时往往会陷入恐慌。这个时候一定要沉住气,因为教授一般会在一连串听不懂的术语后面用简单的语言再次概括一下刚才所提的术语的意思。有时,这些术语会在屏幕上出现,作为提示点,这个时候音频中往往也会有3秒钟左右的停顿。

 

例:

TPO13-L1

Precisely, so the beaver in this ecosystem is what we call a keystone species.The term keystone kind of explains itself. In architecture, a keystone in an archway or doorway is the stone that holds the whole thing together, and keeps it from collapsing. Well, that's what a keystone species does in an ecosystem. It's the critical species that keeps the system going.

 

Why does the professor say this?

(The term keystone kind of explains itself. In architecture, a keystone in an archway or doorway is the stone that holds the whole thing together, and keeps it from collapsing. )

A. To point out that some terms have different meanings in other fields.

B. To indicate that she is not going to explain the term.

C. To defend a term she made earlier about ecosystems.

D. To clarify a term used in biology.

✔答案:D

 

 

三、转折原则

话说一半忽然间出现一个大转折,这时候哪个部分才是重点强调的点呢?我在课堂上常会拿一句话举例子:你人很好,但你不是个好人。一般听完这句话同学们都会心领神会的笑起来,因为大家都听得出来,这句话的重点在于后半部分。在托福听力中这一原则同样适用。这种表转折的信号词有很多,比如:

... is not... but...

.... seems... but...

You may think...but...

 

例:

TPO6-L2

Right. That’s…that’s actually a very good answer. Uh, of course, you might think there might not be many areas where the tree could spread into, er…because…um…well, it’s very specialized in terms of the habitat. But, that’s not really the case here. Um…the suitable habitat, that is, the actual rain forest is much larger than the few hectares where the Nightcap Oak grows.

 

What point does the professor make about the Nightcap Oak’s habitat?

A. It is stable despite its limited size.

B. Unlike the habitats of many plants, it is expanding.

C. Its recent changes have left the Nightcap Oak struggling to adapt.

D. Its size is much larger than the area where the Nightcap Oak grows.

✔答案:D

 

四、举例原则

在托福OG中指出,举例子实际上是一种“支持”的方式,所以如果你听着听着感觉到教授忽然开始举例子或者谈话忽然由高深的理论变成了具体的案例,那么一定要仔细回想举例之前教教授所说的观点是什么,这一点很重要,而非例子本身所讲的故事。

信号词:

For example...

For instance...

Say, ...

 

例:

TPO4-L1

Whats interesting is that studies have been done that suggest that the animals environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays. For example, there’s a bird, the ‘wood thrush’, anyway, when the ‘wood thrush’ is in an attack-escape conflict, that is, it’s caught between the two urges to escape from or to attack an enemy, if it’s sitting on a horizontal branch, it’ll wipe its beak on its perch. If it’s sitting on a vertical branch, it’ll groom its breast feathers. The immediate environment of the bird, its immediate, um, its relationship to its immediate environment seems to play a part in which behavior will display.

 

Why does the professor mention the wood thrush?

A. To contrast its displacement activities with those of other animal species.

B. To explain that some animals display displacement activities other than grooming.

C. To point out how displacement activities are influenced by the environment.

D. To give an example of an animal that does not display displacement activities.

✔答案:C

 

 

五、问答原则

在一篇讲座中,时常会出现教授和学生之间的互动。这种互动有三种形式:

1. 教授提问,学生回答;

2. 学生提问,教授回答;

3. 教授自问自答;

这些问答部分所涉及的内容极有可能是出题点的所在。

 

 

•     教授提问,学生回答

TPO34-L4

professor

Right, Cathy, let’s take another look.Do you recall, Cathy, how this S-curve represents the life cycle of innovation?

 

female student

Sure, starting on the left, the new innovation, uh, let’s say it’s a new product. Almost nobody has heard of it or at least nobody takes it seriously. Then its popularity increases, uh, slowly at first, till sales really started accelerating quickly. There were the line goes up steeply in the middle as more and more people get excited about the product and they go out and buy it. But eventually, moving over to the right side there, interest began to fade and the growth in sales levels off.

 

What do the speakers indicate can be represented by the S-curve graph?

A. The typical pattern of sales for a product.

B. The flow of a music composition.

C. The general popularity of jazz music in 1950s.

D. The recent increase in sales for a classic jazz album.

✔答案:A

 

•     学生提问,教授回答

TPO9-L2

Female student:

But, what about run-off in the spring, when the snow finally melts? Won't the nutrients get washed away? Spring thaw always washes away soil, doesn't it?

 

Lecturer:

Well, much of the soil is usually still frozen during peak run-off. And the nutrients are deep down in the active layer anyway, not high up near the surface, which is the part of the active layer most affected by run-off.

 

Why are nutrients in the soil NOT carried away by the spring run-off?

A. The roots of shrubs prevent nutrient-filled soil from being washed away.

B. Most nutrients are not in the area of the soil most affected by run-off.

C. Most nutrients remain frozen in the permafrost when spring run-off is at its peak.

D. Most nutrients have been absorbed by vegetation before the run-off period begins.

✔答案:B 

 

•     教授自问自答

TPO12-L4

Professor

Yeah. And for better or for worse, we chose to go down that path as a society. When you consider economic factors, it's easy to see why. But then in the 1970s, there was an interest in solar energy again. Why do you think that happened?

 

Student B

Because oil and natural gas were...err...became scarce?

 

Professor

Well, not exactly. The amount of oil and natural gas in the earth was still plentiful, but there were other reasons. It's a political thing really and I'm gonna get into that now. So what happened in the 1970s was oil and natural gas became very expensive very quickly, and that spurred people to start looking into alternative forms of energy, solar energy probably being the most popular. But then in the 80s, this trend reversed itself when the price of oil and natural gas went down.

 

According to the professor, what led to the popularity of solar energy in the 1970s?

A. New solar energy technologies.

B. Advertising campaigns by solar energy companies.

C. An increase in the price of oil and natural gas.

D. The depletion of earth’s reserves of oil and natural gas.

✔答案:C

 

六、态度原则

在一篇讲座中,教授不免会时常提到一种或几中不同的理论,除了陈述这些理论外,有时教授会就从自己的角度出发,做出一些评论。这些评论分为三种:积极评论(太牛逼了)、消极评论(神马玩意)和中立评论(关我屁事)。这类就是态度题的典型出题点。这类信息一般出现在讲座的中后部分,具体的信号词有一下这些。

 

积极态度

Wonderful/useful/efficient/conclusive/valid

消极态度

Costly/serious problem/questionable/unsuccessful

中立态度

Only time will tell/who knows/there has been no evidence

 

P.S 如果在考试的过程中发现自己没听到所谓的态度怎么办呢?这个时候建议大家优先选择那些观点中立的选项,因为根据我们的统计和对考试出题规律的额间就发现,中立性的观点正确的可能性更高。

 

TPO33-L1

Well, in 1986, French scientists completed a microgravimetric survey of the Pyramid. And one of the images they produced showed an empty spiral-shaped space inside it. The shape of that space  corresponds exactly to what Houdin thought the ramp would look like. I think Herodotus would be convinced. We might very well be at the end of centuries of guessing. (我觉得H知道了也会心悦诚服的。我们也许就要终结几个世纪的猜测了)

 

What is the professor’s view of the Houdin’s theory?

A. She would like to see more detailed microgravimetric survey before she will be convinced it is true.

B. She is surprised at how similar it is to Herodotus’ theory.

C. She finds the microgravimetric evidence for it to be very strong.

D. She thinks it is plausible but leaves some important questions unanswered.

✔答案:C

 

TPO31-L1

I’m thinking back now to when I first started listening to Rock’n’ Roll and I remember my father saying it was a bad influence on us. I think he would have gotten along well with Plato. Anyway, I don’t have to tell you what I think about Plato’s ideas about innovation, do I?

 

Why does the professor say this? (Anyway, I don’t have to tell you what I think about Plato’s ideas about innovation, do I?)

A.He does not think his opinions are relevant to class discussion.

B.He believes his students can infer what he thinks.

C.He wants his students to take Plato’s ideas seriously.

D.He does not want to influence his students’ opinions.

✔答案:B

 

 

七、“原本以为”原则

我们在日常表达中经常会说“我原本以为... ...”这种表达的潜在含义当然是现实情况和我们设想的不一样。在托福听力讲座中,这样的语言表达也是考察的重点之一。需要注意的是,这里设想的情况和现实情况都有可能成为考点,在做笔记的时候需要用箭头等符号把二者标注出来。

信号词:

We used to believe... ...

The traditional view was... ...

For a long time... ...

Until just recently... ...

 

TPO10-L1

For a long time, we assumed that all whales that had teeth including sperm whales and killer whales were closely related to one another. And the same for the toothless whales, like the blue whale and other baleen whales, we assumed that they be closely related. But recent DNA studies suggest that that’s not the case at all. The sperm whale is actually closely related to the baleen whale, and it’s only distantly related to the toothed-whales. So that was a real surprise to all of us.

 

What does DNA evidence indicate the relationships among whales?

A.All modern whales descend from sperm whales.

B.Differences among toothed whales are less significant than was previously thought.

C.Not all toothed whales are closely related.

D.Sperm whales are more closely related to killer whales than previously thought.

✔答案:C

 

八、人名、地名、数字、时间原则

在讲座中有时会提到一些人名、地名、数字、时间等等信息点。我曾经在课上和大家说过,这些过于详细的信息点属于“琐碎信息”,并不是托福听力考察的目标。但是,这不意味着这些信息点出现时你就可以坐着放空了。在直线型结构的讲座中,人名、地名、时间、地点往往在材料中起到节点的作用。所以,每当提到一个人物或者时间点时,一定要记录下这个人或者这个时间点里发生了哪些事情。

比较典型的是TPO16-L4,这一篇讲述了玻璃艺术的发展历史,主要分为了四个时间节点:中世纪---14世纪---16世纪---19世纪;其中提到了三种玻璃艺术制作工艺:stained glass, painted glass, layered glass. 这其中的考点主要就是从每个节点中抽取,定位非常明显。

 

以上内容就是由我精心为大家整理和编写的托福听力八大解题原则,希望大家认真阅读的同时能够在练时的过程中有意识的使用到,做到理论指导实践。

 

 
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